Phase Induction in Motor

Three phase induction motors employ a simple construction made up of a stator covered with electromagnets, and a rotor made up of conductors shorted at each end, arranged as a “squirrel cage”. They focus on the theory of induction in which a rotating electro-magnetic field it made by applying a three-phase current at the stators electromagnets. Therefore induces a current inside the rotor’s conductors, which in turns generates rotor’s magnetic field that attempts to follow stator’s magnetic field, pulling the rotor into rotation.

Benefits of AC Induction Motors are:

Induction motors are basic and rugged in construction. They are more robust and can operate in any environmental condition

Induction motors are cheaper in expense because of simple rotor construction, absence of brushes, commutators, and slide rings

They are maintenance free motors unlike dc motors because of the absence of brushes, commutators and slip rings

Induction motors could be operated in polluted and explosive environments as they do not have Induction in Motor brushes which can cause sparks

AC Induction motors are Asynchronous Machines meaning that the rotor will not convert at the exact same speed because the stator’s rotating magnetic field. Some difference in the rotor and stator rate is necessary to be able to develop the induction in to the rotor. The difference between the two is named the slip. Slip must be kept within an optimal range to ensure that the motor to use effectively. Roboteq AC Induction controllers can be configured to operate in one of three modes:

Scallar (or Volts per Hertz): an Open loop mode where a command causes a simultaneous, fixed-ratio Frequency and Voltage alter.

Controlled Slip: a Closed Loop speed where voltage and frequency are controlled in order to keep slip inside a narrow range while working at a desired speed.

Field Oriented Control (Vector Drive): a Closed Loop Speed and Torque control that works by optimizing the rotating field of the stator vs. this of the induced field in the rotor.

Find this video from Learning Engineering for a visual illustration on how AC Induction Motors are constructed and work.

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